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Ghost Town, v03, Dos Cabezas, AZ (1879), USA

Doz CabezasAZ (about 1879, population <25), height 1,549 m (1582 m)

"The Dos Cabezasite is the only person on the globe who can sit and smile calmly and smiles again under conditions and adversities that would drive a vicious devotee of the Lamb crazy.When Gabriel blows his horn, he will find some of those ingenious ancients Fellows who sit on a rock and tell about the promising future of the camp or how rich the juniper mine is. "-Grave stone EpitaphApril 28, 1887

Dos Cabezas, AZ is a "living" Sonoran Desert Ghost town with few remaining inhabitants • in the Sulfur Springs Valley [[[[photo]from Cochise County • lies next to the Dos Cabezas ("Two Heads") mountains, named after the two bare peaks

• A historically significant source of drinking water, formerly known as Dos Cabezas Spring, is about half an hour away. southwest of the city on the old Southern Emigration Patha main artery of the Move west • The path descends from below into the valley Apache Spring by Apache Pass

On September 4, 1851, John Russell Bartlett & his Boundary Survey The Commission was located to the west in an area that had been Spanish / Mexican territory for more than 300 years worn in the US in 1848, end of controversial The Mexican-American War, but much of the southernmost region of Arizona and New Mexico remained under the Mexican flag. • Bartlet's mission was to work with a Mexican Surveying Team to formally define the post-war US-Mexico border

• The survey was a prelude to the years 1853-54 Gadsden purchase which acquired 29,670 square kilometers for $ 10 million. of the Mexican territory south of the Gila River, Including Cochise County • The deal was signed by the president Franklin Pierce, a northern anti-abolitionist ("TeiggesichtDemocrat • It should facilitate the development of a road, canal and / or railway in New Orleans-LA and open southward expansion to the south, apparently ignoring the fact that an economy based on slave cotton probably not thriving in the desert – "Cochise and his times"

• With drinking water, a precious commodity for two- and four-legged desert travelers, Apache Spring – like many water holes – became the scene of a stagecoach stop. C. 1857 • was operated by the San Antonio-San Diego "San-San" line, commonly known "Jackass Mail"Chiricahua Apache Attacks made the Apache Pass the most dangerous stop on Birkenstrasse[[[[map], named after company owner James Birch (1827-1857) –The West is connected

• the 1,476 mi. Only daylight driving – with daily stops for 2 meals (45 min. Each) and team change (5-10 min.) – usually it took less than 30 days and could be up to 22. • One way is $ 150. Meals and £ 30 luggage included –Deconstruct the Jackass Mail Route

• The Jackass Line had a fleet of High speed trolley (mud)Vehicles suitable for transport in case of strong heat in rough terrain. Concord stagecoaches [[[[photo]made by the Abbot Downing Co. in Concord, NH

"It was no joke to sit in the hard seat, now against the roof and now against the side of the car." Under the passenger compartment, wide leather straps called "full-length braces" sat in the carriage, causing them to move Motion sickness was a common complaint, and ginger root was the preferred remedy. "-Historynet

• Each stage accommodates 9-12 passengers on three benches and up to 10 others on the roof • The coaches were drawn by four- and six-mule teams. • The company kept 200 upper mules in its western coasts

The bus was equipped with three seats, which were occupied by nine passengers. As the occupants of the front and middle seats faced each other, these six persons had to lock their knees; and only for ten of the twelve legs there was room, each side of the coach was adorned by a foot that dangled now on the bike and now tried in vain to find a base … "-The story of stagecoaches in Tucson, ArizonaBob Ring

Tips For stagecoach travelers, Cowboy Chronicles

The passenger experience, Desert USA

"The company recommended to every passenger: … with one Sharp's rifle(Not carbine,) with equipment and a hundred cartridges, a dark blue Colts revolver and two pounds of bullets, belts and holsters, knives and scabbards … "-San Diego Herald November 21, 1857

• The stations of the line were built 10 to 40 miles. apart from • a few basic bedding options provided; Everyone had water for passengers, drivers ("Whips") and their teams • equipped with corrals, the depots served as relay stations where drivers and draft animals were exchanged. • "Rocking Stations" did not offer meals, but larger "home stations," often run by families, were "eating stops":

"… hard beef or pork fried in a dirt-blackened pan, coarse bread, mesquite beans, a mysterious concoction known as slumgullion, deadly black coffee, and a" nasty mixture of dried apples "that spread masked under the name apple pie. "-True West

• In September 1857, Jackass founder James Birch, who sailed to Panama via California, was lost at sea along with 419 other passengers and 30-pound pounds. made of gold in the S. S. Central America Disaster • in the same month the Butterfield Overland Mail line[[[[photos]From St. Louis to San Francisco, it gradually began to displace the Jackass Line and absorb many of its stations

• around 1858 a new fortified stone camp, Ewell's Stage Station [[[[photo]rose 4 mi. south of Dos Cabezas Spring • It's unclear which stage lift the building has built, but when Jackass Mail was completed, Butterfield-Overland later left the decision to bypass "Ewell's." In 1861 it was in ruins, which were destroyed by Apaches

• The name Ewell continued to live in a tiny, heavily populated settlement Ewell Springs & at Dos Cabezas Spring, renamed Ewell's Spring when the original station was built. • In 1879, the National Mail & Transportation Co. had set up a new Ewell's station

Born in Virginia Richard Stoddert "Baldy" Ewell (1817-1872) was captain of the first US dragoons, which were stationed in the 1850s in the southwest. He resigned from the US Army in 1861 to join the Confederation. • served in the Civil War as Commander-in-Chief under Stonewall Jackson & Robert E. Lee • It has been argued that his decisions In the Battle of Gettysburg may have decided the outcome of this engagement

• During Ewell's service in the West, Gila Apache raided the Southern Emigrant Route and demanded a military response. • He campaigned for an unrestricted fight: "How can the devil stop a soldier in the midst of battle and summon a jury of mattresses to decide if he has a redshin to throw bullets into the soldiers is a woman or not . "• the 1857 Bonneville Expedition, in which Ewell commanded about 300 men, who committed themselves on the river Gila against Apache

"… the fight on June 27 … was short and sweet … Ewell went away with the lion's share of the honors … Hardly an Apache escaped, nearly 40 warriors were killed or wounded and 45 women and children were captured … Ewell was unreservedly recognized as the hero of the day, his rampant leap to action destroyed the Western Apaches and forced them to seek peace. "-Robert E. Lee's hesitant commanderPaul D. Casdorph

• From Lt. John Van Deusen Du Bois & # 39; report on the engagement: "An Indian was wounded, and his wife carried him to the Chaparral in the arms and covered him with a brush when the troops came upon them and killed both of them Indian was arrested and taken out by Col. Bonneville's request or express command with bound hands and shot like a dog by a Pueblo Indian – not 30 yards from the camp … May God never allow the Native American fight make me a thug or I'm hard, so that I can behave the coward in this way … "-Journal of the History of Arizona, Vo. 43, No. 2, Arizona Historical Society

• c. Around 1850, gold veins and some gold nuggets were discovered around the Ewell's station in the 1860s wildcatters Gold found on both sides of the Dos Cabezas series • In 1862, claims were made near the mountains and around the Apache Pass.Index of Mining Properties

• In 1866, Congress passed a mining law that in 1872 proclaimed "Minerals of Public Interest … free and open to exploration and occupation." additional stimulus was provided to "promote the exploration and development of minerals in the western United States",Congress Research Service

• John Casey (1834-1904), an immigrant from Ireland, had made the first important statement in the area of ​​Dos Cabezas in 1878. • Juniper (locally known as "Casey Gold") was only 3 km northeast of Ewell Spring • John and his brother Dan moved to a hut on site. • At the end of the year, a dozen employees worked in the mine

• The news that Casey Pay Dirt & Word had hit that soon a station in the South Pacific would be built in Willcox – only 14 miles. Dozens of prospectors lured, z. B. Simon Hansen (1852-1929), a recent immigrant from Denmark who claimed 27 claims. • With the arrival of the new settlers, a small school was built on October 20, 1878, the Dos Cabezas The mining district was officially determined

• 1879 the Arizona Miner reported rich silver and gold deposits, claiming to have 2,000 residents at Ewell Springs. • Other reports indicate that the local population is unlikely to exceed 300 before 1920The persistence of mining settlements in the Arizona countrysideJonathan Lay Harris, 1971

• In the midst of the rapid growth of 1879, the settlement of Ewell Springs was replaced by Dos Cabezas, a town with its own post office, just above Ewell. • John Casey is widely regarded as the founder • Mississippi-born James Monroe Riggs (1835-1912), once a lieutenant colonel in the Confederate Army, became Post Cabezas' first postmaster and opened a shop he was Traveler's Rest named

• In 1880 there were ~ 30 mud houses and 15 families in the up-and-coming city. • In 1882, the year of the city newspaper, 65 voters were registered Dos Cabezas Gold NoteIn 1884, 42 students wrote the school of the city

• At its height, Dos Cabezas had ~ 50 buildings, 3 shops, 3 salons, 2 dairies, joineries, telegraphy, a commercial shop, a barber shop, a butchery, a brewery, a brickyard, a hotel, a ballroom, a boarding house, a blacksmith shop , 3 stables, 3 stamp mills For gold ore and about 300 inhabitants, however, the population consisted of at least 1,500 prospectors, miners and other mining companies. Employees who live in the nearby mountains and valleys –Books in Northport

• Dos Cabezas ("Two Heads") was often spelled and pronounced "Dos Cabezos", with an "o" replacing the second "a" in "Cabezas". • The postmaster chose both spellings, as seen in the city postmark • the English translation by Dos CabezOs is "Two Peaks", undoubtedly a more accurate – albeit less poetic – description of the twin peaks than the original, since the flawed version was only registered at the US Post Office in Washington DC interchangeable spellings persist into the 20th century

• The railroad arrived in Arizona in 1880, a station was established in Willcox, and shabby Scottish-born miner John Dare Emersley (1826-1899) arrived at Dos Cabezas to search for mineral deposits. • JD was a graduate of the U. of Edinburgh, a scientifically accomplished writer and botanical collector with drought-tolerant grass, who named after him Muhlenbergia emersleyi (bull grass) • was a correspondent for the Engineering & Mining Journal • several other journals, including Scientific American him

According to a miner who knew him, Emersley was apparently a greedy-and unusually tall-knight: "Every Old Settler in the Globe District remembers Emersley, a three-meter-long scotchman who had more claims than he could work, and jumped more than he could hold. "-Arizona silver belt (Globe, AT), January 6, 1883

• The Scotchman soon found a gold deposit and made about 20 claims. • He built a cabin nearby at an altitude of 6,000 meters and led a secluded life. He made a contract with God and vowed not to develop allegations from him, unless he received a sign from above. Nevertheless, the legally prescribed work to retain ownership of its claims produced several tunnels, one that Roberts, 160. The sign of God was never realized, and while Emersley was waiting for it, he died of scurvy

• shortly thereafter Starved to death among his richThe story of JD Emersley, a religious hermit who lived and died on a "copper mountain", appeared in newspapers across the country. • Emersley made his demand on the Lord to be used for the good of all humanity, though he did not wish for this last wish, the "Mountain of Copper" brought another wave of prospectors into the mining district and sparked a local copper boom out

• In 1899, a new town, Laub City, was dismissed at the mouth of Mascot Canyon, 3 km. on Dos Cabezas • John A. Rockfellow (1858-1947)[[[[photo], Author of The Log of an Arizona Trail Blazer, conducted the survey. • Rockefeller's sister was Tucson architect Anne Graham Rockfellow (1866-1954), an MIT graduate and designer of the landmark El Conquistador[[[[photo]• The site was near the Emersley claims acquired from the mines of Dos Cabezas Consolidated. Coastal coastline electrification required countless miles of copper power lines"Copper camp" like Laub City grew and prospered. The city grew and gained its own post office around 1900

• Laub City was named after (and possibly after) Henry leaves (1858-1926), a Kentucky-born investor from Los Angeles for German-Jewish immigrants. • He made his first fortune as a liquor dealer. • He later invested in mining, oil and real estate in Southeast Arizona

"There is every reason to believe that Dos Cabezas will be one of Arizona's largest mining areas" – Henry Laub, 1902

• A global increase in mining led to a decline in copper prices as supply outstripped demand. • Several mining experts collaborated to restrict production so as not to stabilize the market. Consolidated Mines financing had dried up in 1903. Laub City was a ghost town Cabezas also suffered from the mine closures, but was able to hold on to the operation of some mines

• In 1905, a Wales-born mining engineer, Capt. Benjamin W. Tibbey (1848-1935), with a "Mr. Page" in the city. • Ben Tibbey's mining career began as a child in a Welch mine. • Page was actually T.N. McCauley, a Chicagoer with a turbulent investment & finance career. • The two examined the mining district. McCauley had apparently stayed. Later, he claimed that he spent two years in Emersly's abandoned cabin. • He applied quietly and acquired claims on 600 hectares

• In June 1907, McCauley organized the Mascot Copper Company with a capitalization of $ 10 million and began large-scale development. • Euphoric reports of massive ore occurrences have appeared in the local press, e.g. B. "Many Thousands of Tons of Ore in Sight – Commandments for Real Estate" Fair to Become Arizona's Largest Copper Producer "

• In 1909, Mascot acquired control of Dos Cabeza's Consolidated Mines Co., the original Emersley claims that the Laub Group had bought. • McCauley launched a campaign to sell Mascot stock for $ 3 / share, later $ 4, and eventually $ 5. • His extravagant promotions included Investor & Press Junkets in the mine in private railroad cars, Food & Drink at the property's Hospitality House, and a substantial shareholder banquet at the Fairmont Hotel in San Francisco with the company logo, a swastika prominently displayed[[[[photo]"The management of the Mascot has a remarkable array of sensational crop coverages and few if other copper mining companies can achieve their enviable performance in terms of actual tonnage when in the same development phase." -Bisbee Daily Review, March 10, 1910

• although stock analysts familiar with McCauley's story con artist Their customers were warned that by August 1910, sales of $ 300,000 had been achieved. • The shareholders owned 25% of the company, the rest was retained by the promoters

• While actual mining and ore deliveries were limited, the company announced that in 1912 a store, a boarding house, employee quarters and a new office building had been completed when Mascot continued its costly expansion and occasionally shipped ore. Arizona Territory won statehood

• In 1914, the company founded Mascot Townsite & Realty Co. to sell land in a new town they developed at Mascot Canyon:

"UNUSUAL OPPORTUNITY FOR PERSONAL GAIN By buying a property on the MASCOT TOWNSITE This new city should have a population of 5,000 in a few years." – May 1915

• By 1915, the city of Mascot had been founded. • Houses that could be reached by winding paths climbed over terraces. • Residents built a community hall on a single day. • On Saturday, a band called "Merry Miners" was organized – nightly dances

"King Copper, the magician of magic, has once again raised his polished scepter – and once again a tiny minecamp, a mere patch of the Arizona landscape, got the industrial incentive that was soon to turn it into a factor to reckon with The tiny mining town of the past was Dos Cabezas The next town is Mascot – El Paso Herald, June 25, 1915

• within 10 years The city would have ~ 100 buildings and 800 inhabitants. • The children were taught at the Mascot School and a second school with 4 teachers. • Many of the city's boys "grew up with gold to earn money" – Arizona Republic, March 4, 1971

• Although most Mexican residents of the area lived in Dos Cabezas, some, such as Esperanza Montoya Padilla (1915-2003), lived in Mascot:

"I was born on August 28, 1915, in Mascot, Arizona … In the early days, when I was a small child, Mascot was very large and thriving, it was also a beautiful place, with lots of cottonwood and oak trees The school was on this street, along with a grocery store and even a pool hall, and there was a pastry shop in the pool hall where they sold treats like ice cream On the hill there was a community center where movies were screened, I remember silent movies with Rudolph Valentino, even the guys from Dos Cabezas came to Mascot because of the movies.

At Christmas, they set up a tree in the community center, and all the kids in the city got their Christmas gifts. There was a road that led from Dos Cabezas to Mascot and all sorts of houses along this road to the mine. Our house was on this street. I remember a time when all were Caballos – horses pulling wagons. Of course the cars came later. –Songs My mother sang to me

• On January 27, 1915, a celebration in Willcox marked the beginning of the construction of the Mascot & Western Railroad • A large crowd watched as a cheering T. N. McCauley turned the first shovel out of dirt. • The last spike – a copper – was taken at The Mascot Townsite on June 15, 1915, followed by a "monstrous grill" for 4000 guests[[[[photos]• Activities included a visit to a mine and the company's "2-mile" railroad (10.6000 & # 39;)[[[[photo]"I feel that this project can only be a good and lasting good, not just because the mascot is established, but because many people who have only known Arizona in the desert so far may be part of it take home with them the idea of ​​permanence that we enjoy in this great community. "- HA Morgan, Bisbee Daily Review, June 27, 1915

• In 1916, a drought devastated the mining area – wells dried up, cattle died and many mines closed. • On July 1, 1917, American Smelting & Refining closed its 20th anniversary. Lease the Mascot property just to give up less than a year. later probably because the operation lost money

• Following the bankruptcy of Mascot Copper, McCauley reorganized the company through merger. • The "new" Central Copper Co. commenced operations on February 15, 1919. • McCauley developed a multi-level marketing concept in which shareholders became stock traders. • The price was set at $ 0.50 per share. Purchases are limited to $ 100 / person and $ 10 / month. Financing Available • The vendors used portable, hand-cranked projectors to film the property at small gatherings of prospects

• According to reports, 70,000 shareholders were invested and were astounded when the price fell 50% when the stock came on the market. • lawsuits have been filed. • In an advertisement published in several newspapers, McCauley denied any action against the company

By January 1924, McCauley reported that $ 4.5 million was spent on the new building. By 1926, 400 employees were on the payroll, but the production of the mines proved marginal. In 1927, shareholders were informed that copper and silver prices would decrease as a result of falling copper and silver prices. Minimum amount to cover operating costs

• The following year, the company was acquired by Southwestern Securities Corporation, a holding company. • At the end of 1929 there were only 26 employees left. • On February 29, 1932, Southwestern Securities acquired Mascot Company through a public auction for $ 100,000. • McCauley moved to Tucson, was involved in a bank scandal, fled to California, then disappeared without a trace –A story of Willcox, Arizona and the surrounding areaVernon Burdette Schultz

• with the failure of Central Copper[[[[photo]And the departure of the miners began Dos Cabeza's final descent, though not without distractions. • Despite frequent mine closures and the onset of the Great Depression, the city set up a team in the Sulfur Springs Valley Baseball League, which also includes a squad representing a C.c.c. Stock • Willcox had 2 teams in the league, the Mexicans and the Americans

• Among the dwindling population of Dos Cabezas was Jack Howard, the man who "sharpened the first tools that opened the first gold discoveries of the Dos Cabezas district" and spent his last 30 years. with Mary Katherine Cummings, the story "Big Nose Kate"[[[[photo], in movies as Katie ElderTombstone Daily Prospector

• John Jessie "Jack" Howard (1858-1930) was born in Nottingham, England. • As one of the first miners in the mining area of ​​Dos Cabezas, he is remembered by Howard Peak and Howard Canyon. • lived in the hills near Dos Cabezas. • He remembered as a crazy guy hiding behind his hut in a manhole to shoot at intruders as they rode into range. • On the other hand, some of his colleagues, Dos Cabezans, thought he was friendly, • divorced his wife Mary, who was divorced according to court records. a hideous and unpleasant mood, coupled with frequent outbursts of fierce temper, until she made his life a burden he could no longer endure. "

Witnesses testified of Mary's insults against insults, which included calling Howard a white man, kept a dirty house, never washed dishes or clothes, and even threatened to burn down his house and poison his camp. " –He lived with Big Nose Kate, True West

• Mary Katherine "Big Nose Kate" Horony (1850-1940) was born in Pest (Hungary). Second oldest daughter of the Hungarian doctor Miklós Horony. • emigrated with her family to the US in 1860. • taken to a nursing home after her parents' death. • stowed on a steamer in St. Louis, where she became a prostitute • 1874 fined for work as an "athlete" (prostitute) in a "sports house" (brothel) in Dodge City, KS, run by Nellie "Bessie" Ketchum, wife of James Earp

• moved to Fort Griffin, TX in 1876. • met dentist John "Doc" Hollidaywho allegedly said that he considered Kate to be his intellectual equal. • Kate introduced Holliday to Wyatt Earp

• The couple fought regularly, sometimes violently. • According to Kate, she married in Valdosta, Georgia. • moved on to AZ territory, where Kate worked as a prostitute at the Palace Saloon in Prescott. They split up, but returned to Holliday in Tombstone[[[[photos]Claimed to have experienced October 26, 1881 Gunfight in the OK Corral out of her window C.S. Fly pension

• 19 years later Kate, almost 50 years old[[[[photo]& Divorcing an abusive husband was too old for prostitution long after her romance with Doc & • In June 1900, when she was employed at the Rath Hotel in Cochise, AT, she responded to a housekeeper for $ 20 / month , plus room and board • The ad was placed by Jack Howard. • Kate lived with him as an employee ("servant" according to the 1900 census) until 1930

• On 3 January, Kate went 3 miles. to the house of Dos Cabeza's postmaster Edwin White.

"Jack died last night and I stayed with him all night."

• Howard was buried in an unmarked grave in the cemetery of Dos Cabezas after living alone for 2 years. Kate sold the homestead for $ 535.30. • In 1931 she wrote the Governor of Arizona, George W.P. Hunt to take in the Arizona pioneers home in Prescott • Although foreigners were born and thus not admitted, she claimed that Davenport, Iowa, was their birthplace and was accepted. • She died 5 days before her 90th birthday. • was buried under the name "Mary K. Cummings" in the cemetery of the homeland. "Big Nose Kate, independent woman of the Wild West – Kyla Cathey

• The mascot mine was closed in 1930

• The Mascot & WesternRailroad ceased operations in 1931 – four years later the tracks were taken

• Dos Cabezas of the 1940s photos

• In 1949, the US Postal Department corrected the spelling of the city postal service from Dos Cabezos to Dos Cabezas

• mid-20th century Dos Cabeza's family[[[[photos]• The postal service of Dos Cabezas was discontinued in 1960

• In 1964, the city's population had dropped to 12

• McCauley's Mascot Hospitality House was part of the Dos Cabezas Spirit & Nature Retreat Bed & Breakfast[[[[photo]• Today, Dos Cabezas is considered a ghost town graveyard the main attraction of the city

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